Our environment is constantly changing,there is no denying in that. However, as our environment changes, so does the need to become increasingly aware of the problems that surround it. Global warming has become an undisputed fact about our current livelihoods; our planet is warming up and we are definitely part of the problem. Environmental problems are due to the negative effects of the process of development that is poverty and underdevelopment.
Major Current Environmental Problems :-
- Pollution: Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution of air, water and soil. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 in the United States created a national policy to have pollution prevented or reduced at the source wherever possible.
- Global Warming: Climate changes like global warming is the result of human practices like emission of Greenhouse gases CO2 and other air pollutants and greenhouse gasses collect in the atmosphere and absorb sunlight and solar radiation that have bounced off the earth’s surface.
- Overpopulation: Overpopulation means that there are too many organisms of a certain species in a certain habitat. This means that the number of organisms living there is larger than the carrying capacity of the habitat. The population of the planet is reaching unsustainable levels as it faces shortage of resources like water, fuel and food.
- Climate Change: Climate change is yet another environmental problem that has surfaced in last couple of decades.Climate change has various harmful effects but not limited to melting of polar ice, change in seasons, occurrence of new diseases, frequent occurrence of floods and change in overall weather scenario.
- Deforestation: Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Our forests are natural sinks of carbon dioxide and produce fresh oxygen as well as helps in regulating temperature and rainfall.
- Ozone Layer Depletion: The ozone layer is an invisible layer of protection around the planet that protects us from the sun’s harmful rays. Pollution cause a hole in the ozone layer. Ozone layer is valuable because it prevents harmful UV radiation from reaching the earth.
- Acid Rain: Acid rain occurs due to the presence of certain pollutants in the atmosphere. It serious effect on human health, wildlife and aquatic species.
Environment destruction caused by humans is a global problem, and this is a problem that is on going every day. Many of the most pressing environmental problems facing humankind today are global problems which need to be addressed on an international front, rather than localized issues which can be addressed by individual countries acting alone. For this reason, international environmental law is becoming increasingly important as an instrument in attempting to counter global environmental problems like ozone depletion, climate change, species extinction and desertification. Control of pollution has been a formidable challenge to human civilization. As the pollution grows with the civilization and growing population, the control of pollution is more challenging. Presence of dangerous unnatural ingredients causing imbalance in the ecosystems and health hazards to human beings and animals.
The environmental degration has adversely affected the poor who depend upon natural resources. Henceforth, both poverty and environmental degradation are two facets of same challenge.
The sources of environmental pollution includes the following:
• Industrial activities
• Rapid urbanization and industrialization
• Population overgrowth
• Agricultural waste
The environmental pollution is not caused by the fall-out from nuclear tests or industries alone. The smoke left behind the automobiles and other vehicular traffic, the increasing use of synthetic detergents, nitrogen fertilizers and insecticides contaminate both air and water.
The worst industrial environment tragedy occurred at Bhopal on December 3, 1984 as a result of toxic and poisonous leakage of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from a multi-national Union Carbide pesticides manufacturing plant. Over 2000 people including woman and children were killed, and hundreds were severely hurt.
The UN Conference on Human Environment was convened to study the profound changes in the relationship between man and his environment in the wake of modern scientific and technological developments.The World Health Organization also set up an international network for the monitoring and study of air pollution on a global scale and for devising possible remedies.